On January 6, 1961, Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushschev delivered a speech in Moscow in which he predicted that the world was moving toward socialism and that "wars of national liberation'' were the main instrument of that movement. Additionally, he pledged Soviet support for indigenous rebellions to overthrow fascists and capitalists. President John F. Kennedy interpreted the speech as an official assertion of the Soviet Union's intention to use surrogate forces to advance its interests rather than direct engagements with the United States. Kennedy saw the Communist movements in Latin America, Africa, and Southeast Asia as part of that large Soviet tactic, and he devised new counterinsurgency strategies to oppose them. Vietnam became the test case for Kennedy's counterinsurgency program to foil a war of national liberation.