Xuan Thuy, a veteran North Vietnamese diplomat, was born in 1912. He was among the original of the Vietnamese nationalists, resisting the French Empire through the Vietminh, being imprisoned and tortured by French officials, but surviving to become the foreign minister of North Vietnam between 1963 and 1965. Between 1968 and 1970, Xuan Thuy headed the North Vietnamese delegation at the Paris peace talks, always insisting with unbending steadfastness on a unilateral American withdrawal from South Vietnam, recognition of the National Liberation Front (Vietcong) as the legitimate government of South Vietnam, and termination of the South Vietnamese government. In 1970, North Vietnam sent Le Due Tho to Paris to continue the negotiations with Henry Kissinger, and Xuan Thuy served as Tho's chief deputy. Xuan Thuy took part in the signing of the peace treaty between the United States and North Vietnam in January 1973. He died on June 18, 1985, in Hanoi.